3 edition of Countercurrent systems found in the catalog.
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A countercurrent system is characterized by very close contact of arterial blood vessels, ideally capillaries, with venous vessels returning from the tissue. In a swimbladder rete mirabile each arterial capillary is surrounded by several venous capillaries, and vice versa.
The diffusion distance between venous and arterial vessels is small (in the micrometer range), and the length of the. Figure The countercurrent multiplier system. The extrusion of sodium chloride from the ascending limb makes the surrounding interstitial fluid more concentrated. Multiplication of this concentration is due to the fact that the descending limb is passively permeable to water, which causes its Countercurrent systems book to increase in concentration as the.
countercurrent exchange a biological mechanism designed to enable maximum exchange between two fluids. The mechanism's effect is dependent on the two fluids flowing in opposite directions, and having a concentration gradient between them.
Countercurrent definition is - a current flowing in a direction opposite that of another current. How to use countercurrent in a sentence. The counter-current multiplier or the countercurrent mechanism is used to concentrate urine in the kidneys by the nephrons of the human excretory system.
Countercurrent mechanism in Henle’s loop The nephrons involved in the formation of concentrated urine extend all the way from the cortex of the kidney to the medulla and are accompanied by.
Countercurrent Mechanism Overview The Countercurrent Mechanism partially contributes to generation of the corticopapillary osmotic gradient and is the product of juxtamedullary nephrons which possess long loops of Henle that extend far into the renal medulla.
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countercurrent (koun′tər-kûr′ənt, -kŭr′-) n. A current that flows in an opposite direction to the flow of another current. coun′tercur′rent adj. coun′tercur′rently adv. countercurrent (ˈkaʊntəˌkʌrənt) n a current flowing in an opposite direction to another current coun•ter•cur•rent (ˈkaʊn tərˌkɜr ənt) n.
THE COUNTERCURRENT SYSTEM THE LOOP OF HENLE:Adds more salt than water to the medullary interstitium, thereby osmotically concentrating the interstitial fluid and diluting the tubular fluid.
THE DISTAL TUBULE AND CORTICAL COLLECTING TUBULE:Lose. Lecture 12 Introduction to Animal Structure and Function Countercurrent Exchange Definition of Countercurrent exchange.
a system where exchange takes place between two fluids which are flowing in opposite directions. Examples of countercurrent exchange systems.
These topics are followed by reviews of axial mixing, flow abnormalities, design equations, fixed bed performance calculation, and multi-component ion exchange. The final chapters explore the choices of continuous and countercurrent design techniques and the practical procedures for packed beds.
This book is of great value to chemical engineers. Practice: Renal system questions. Renal physiology: Glomerular filtration. Tubular reabsorption article. Renal physiology: Counter current multiplication.
This is the currently selected item. Meet the kidneys. Kidney function and anatomy. Glomerular filtration in the nephron. Changing glomerular filtration rate. countercurrent heat exchange A counterflow mechanism that enables fluids at different temperatures flowing in channels in opposite directions to exchange their heat content without mixing.
An example of countercurrent heat exchange occurs in the feet of penguins, in which heat from blood in the arteries supplying the feet is transferred to blood returning to the body's core in veins that lie. Introduction: Countercurrents exist when fluids flow in opposite directions in parallel and adjacent tubes.
There are 2 countercurrent systems and an osmotic equilibrating device: Countercurrent multiplier (Loop of Henle): Establishes gradient of osmolarity from cortex (mOsm/L) to the papilla (mOsm/L) aided by Urea recycling Countercurrent exchanger (Vasa recta): Maintains the.
Description Counter-Current Extraction: An Introduction to the Design and Operation of Counter-Current Extractors provide useful conclusions and results pertaining to counter-current extraction. This book. Countercurrent reactors can be utilized in chemical reaction systems which involve either a reaction between flows of different phases, or reactions between flows separated by a selective permeable membrane.
This idea is quite similar in nature to a countercurrent heat exchanger, where the. Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.
For example, this surface might be the air/water interface of a water body, the surface of a gas bubble in a liquid, a gas-permeable membrane, or a biological membrane that forms the boundary between an organism and its extracellular environment.
Gases are constantly consumed and produced by. Countercurrent exchange is found in many biological systems such as mammalian kidneys, bird lungs, and fish gills and is a commonly used industrial chemical and thermal transfer system.
A similar system is the concurrent exchange process which is less effective and features transfers between fluids flowing in the same direction. Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a separation technique in which the stationary phase is a liquid. The mobile phase is also a liquid, so biphasic liquid systems with at Format: Hardcover.
Countercurrent definition, a current running in an opposite direction to another current. See more. The collecting duct system begins in the renal cortex and extends deep into the medulla. As the urine travels down the collecting duct system, it passes by the medullary interstitium which has a high sodium concentration as a result of the loop of Henle's countercurrent multiplier system.
We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow more. Video animation I did for some med students. I'm sorry there's no sound, it wasn't my task to provide voice overs or narration.
For the record, I have *no* idea how this actually works. This is. This book is the first to satisfy the rapidly growing demand for detailed information on the technique of countercurrent chromatography.
It covers comprehensively this modern method, which is of interest to natural scientists in many fields. Both the development of instrumentation for CCC and its application to chemical, biological and other separations are treated in-depth.
Insects have a highly specialized type of respiratory system called the tracheal system, which consists of a network of small tubes that carries oxygen to the entire body. The tracheal system is the most direct and efficient respiratory system in active animals.
The tubes in the tracheal system are made of a polymeric material called chitin. Penguin flippers possess a countercurrent heat exchange mechanism similar to that of the legs, and hence their flippers, like feet, play an important role in thermoregulation.
But while penguin feet remain frostbite-free under bitterly cold conditions, birds such as rock pigeons (Colomba livia) and domestic chickens sometimes lose toes to.
S. Mostafa Ghiaasiaan is a Professor in the George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology.
Before joining the faculty inProfessor Ghiaasiaan worked in the Aerospace and Nuclear Power industry for eight years, conducting research and development activity on modeling and simulation of transport processes, multi-phase flow, and Reviews: 2.
Countercurrent. likes 32 talking about this. Countercurrent is a contra dance and folk music band in western Washington, featuring driving guitar, foot percussion, lyrical fiddle, and harmony. counter-current mechanism fully explained, specially targeting those concepts which are not explained clearly in the book.
Orbital Turns per Theoretical Plate for Countercurrent Chromatography Device Comparison J.-M. Menet, M.-C. Rolet-Menet, D. Thiébaut, and R. Rosset Chapter 3, pp Countercurrent Multiplier System. The structure of the loop of Henle and associated vasa recta create a countercurrent multiplier system (Figure ).
The countercurrent term comes from the fact that the descending and ascending loops are next to each other and their fluid flows in opposite directions (countercurrent). Countercurrent heat exchange refers to the exchange of heat between two flowing entities that are flowing in opposite directions.
It used in animals to regulate and maintain a relatively constant core body temperature (thermoregulation). Additionally, the heart can pump blood less rapidly due to this highly effective way to minimize heat loss.
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Fish use gills for gas exchange. Gills have numerous folds that give them a very large surface area. The rows of gill filaments have many protrusions called gill lamellae. The folds are kept supported and moist by the water that is continually pumped through the mouth and over the gills.
/**/ /**/ Fish also have an efficient transport system within the lamellae which maintains the. This countercurrent heat exchange system is very efficient at maintaining heat in the core. Periodic increases in blood flow allow a little heat to reach the foot and prevent it from freezing.
Bird feet can also withstand low temperatures without damage because there are mostly tendons and bones with little muscle or nerve tissue. For a brief introduction to Counter-Currents see the following articles by Greg Johnson: “New Right vs. Old Right“ Frequently Asked Questions, Part 1; Frequently Asked Questions, Part 2 “Toward a North American New Right“ Counter-Currents submissions.
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Practice: Renal system questions. This is the currently selected item. Renal physiology: Glomerular filtration. Tubular reabsorption article. Renal physiology: Counter current multiplication. Meet the kidneys. Kidney function and anatomy. Glomerular filtration in.
Countercurrent Extraction - Craig Apparatus. Theory. A method of multiple liquid-liquid extractions is countercurrent extraction, which permits the separation of substances with different distribution coefficients (ratios). A clever design known as Craig apparatus is used for this purpose (Lyman C.
Craig, ). Lyman C. Craig. John Scales Avery, Nobel Peace Prize winner with Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. Binu Mathew is the heroic and dedicated editor of the internet journal “Countercurrents”.the purely countercurrent flow configuration, and F is the configuration correction factor for multiple tube-side and/or shell-side passes.
Charts of F for the common shell and tube exchanger configuration are discussed later. U* is most commonly referred to Ao the total outside tube heat transfer area, including fins, in which case.Countercurrent.
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